Clólann Bheann Mhadagáin Ben Madigan Press
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Title: An Ghaeilge ó Lá go Lá - Irish Day by Day
Author: AJ Hughes MA, MésL, PhD
Publisher: Clólann Bheann Mhadagáin, 2024
Level: Beginner and intermediate learners
Softback: 216 pages (A5) + 2 CDs  
ISBN: 978-0-9542834-6-9  
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Book Details   70 English to Irish Translation Exercises

An Ghaeilge ó Lá go Lá

Irish Day by Day



Seventy English to Irish Exercise Passages

Forlíonadh Idirlín

70 Aistriúchán ó Bhéarla go Gaeilge

Cuir Gaeilge ar na sleachta a leanas:

Translate the following passages into Irish
(each text accompanies a story in the book Irish Day by Day)
Ideally you should read each story first and then attempt a translation.

‘Excuse me, but who are you?’
‘I am Bríd. Who are you?’
‘I am Gearóid. Where are you from, Bríd?’
‘I am from Belfast (Béal Feirste). Where are you from?’
‘I am from Galway (Gaillimh).’
‘What do you do for a living, Gearóid?’
‘I am a teacher (múinteoir). What do you do?’
‘I am a nurse (banaltra). Do you like your work, Gearóid?’
‘No. I would like another job. Do you like your work, Bríd?’
‘I do.’

I am Seán. I am from Dublin (Baile Átha Cliath). I am a taxi driver (tiománaí tacsaí).
I am Nuala. I am from Larne (Latharna). I am a hairdresser (gruagaire).
This is Pádraig. He is from Armagh (Ard Mhacha). He is a farmer (feirmeoir).
This is Póilín. She is from Drogheda (Droichead Átha). She is a counsellor (comhairleoir).
That is Donnchadh. He is from Gortahork (Gort an Choirce). He is an electrician (leictreoir).

You may not have met. Daithí, this is Conla. She is from Dundalk (Dún Dealgan) and she is an editor (eagarthóir).
Conla, this is Daithí. He is from Dungannon (Dún Geanainn) and he is a joiner (siúinéir).
‘How are you, Daithí?’
‘Fine, Conla. How are you yourself?’
‘Well, thanks. It is nice to meet you.’
‘It is, surely. We’ll be chatting again.’

I am Ciara. I am a classroom assistant (cúntóir ranga). I am from Ireland, therefore I am an Irishwoman.
I am Simon. I am a lorry driver (tiománaí leoraí). I am from England (Sasain = Sasana), therefore I am an Englishman.
That is Jack. He is a reporter (tuairisceoir). He is from Australia (an Astráil). That is the same as saying he is an Australian (Astrálach).
This is Petra. She is a sports teacher (múinteoir spóirt). She is from Sweden (an tSualainn). That makes her a Swede (Sualannach).
Here are Betty and Graham. They are police officers (gardaí). They are from Scotland. That makes them Scots (Albanaigh).
What country is Clive from? He is from England. Is he a teacher? No.
What does Carmel do? She is a dentist. Is she an Irishwoman? No. What country is she from? She is from America. She is an American.

I am John Higgins (Seán Ó hUiginn). I am from Glasgow (Glaschú). I am a shopkeeper (siopadóir).
I have a friend. His name is Micheál. He is from Edinburgh (Dún Éidinn) and he is a chef (cócaire).
He likes French music but he prefers Spanish music to it. He does not like jazz (snagcheol) at all. He hates it. He cannot stand it.
Seán remembers when he met me but I cannot remember when I ( mise) met him (leisean).
Although I like Edinburgh, I prefer Glasgow to it.
Does Colm remember when he met Síle? No, but Síle remembers when she (sise) met him (leisean). Is Síle a teacher? She says that she is. Does Síle prefer Ireland (Éire) to Scotland (Albain)? Yes.

I met a new girl (cailín) at school a few weeks (seachtain) ago. Here is how we spoke to each other:
‘What is your name?’
‘Clár. What is your name?’
‘How are you, Críostóir? ‘I am well, Clár. How are you (tusa)? ‘I am fine, thanks.’
‘You have a sister at (the) school, don’t you?’ ‘Yes. She is in class eleven (a haon déag). What is her name?’ ‘Caitlín.’ ‘How is she?’ ‘She is middling.’ ‘I have a brother in year thrirteen (a trí déag).’ ‘What is his name?’ ‘Éamann.’ ‘How is he? ‘He is not too bad (use caill).’
‘Do you see those two over there?’ ‘Yes’.
‘What are their names?’ ‘Dónall and Gráinne’.
‘How are they?’ ‘They are sick.’ ‘What is wrong with them? ‘They have a flu (ulpóg).’ ‘That is awful. Are they (An bhfuil siad) going home?’ ‘Yes.’ ‘Goodbye, Clár.’ ‘Goodbye for now, Críostóir. It is nice to meet you. I’ll see you again.’ ‘You will, surely’.

‘Does Seán speak Irish?’
‘He does, a little bit. He is only learning.’
‘Where is he learning?’
‘At school.’
Who is his (a) teacher?
‘Fear Flatha Mac Eachmharcaigh.’
‘Say that again, please. I did not understand it’.
‘When did he start learning?’
‘He began a couple of months ago. He is interested in Irish.’
‘Do you speak Irish?’
‘I do. I speak plenty of Irish.’
‘Does Bríd speak Irish?’
‘Yes. She speaks plenty of Irish (aici). She was brought up speaking Irish. She is a native speaker.’

He was out walking one night (oíche). He heard Séamas and Máire talking. They were talking in Irish. ‘I want to speak Irish’, said he (arsa seisean).
He came home. He ate his dinner. He enjoyed it. His friend phoned him.
‘Would you like to go to an Irish class today (inniu), Pádraig?’ ‘I would, Sorcha.’
They went out that day. The class began at ten in the morning (a deich a chlog ar maidin). They learned a few things at the class.
‘Who are you?’ ‘I am Pádraig.’
‘Where are you from? ‘I am from Coleraine (Cúil Raithin).’
‘How are you?’ ‘Fine. How are you?’ ‘Well, thanks.’
‘Goodbye.’ ‘Goodbye for now and good luck to you.’
‘I’ll see you’. ‘You will surely.’
They enjoyed the class. They (leo) cannot wait for they next one. They love Irish. They (acu) have a fine teacher.

She (í) was born in Conamara. She was brought up there (ansin) also. She is still living in Conamara. She will stay there.
I was born in Luton but I was not brought up there. I was brought up in Derry. I left Derry when I was nineteen (naoi mbliana déag). I am living in Belfast for the last seven years (seacht mbliana).
Conall was born and brought up in Gaoth Dobhair. He is not living in Gaoth Dobhair now. He left Gaoth Dobhair when he was seventeen. He is living in Glasgow for the last three years (trí bliana).
I believe that Anna was born in Limavady (Léim an Mhadaidh). I know she was brought up there. She is not living in Limavady now, she hasn’t been for two years (dhá bhliain) now. Anna and Pól left Limavady when they were eighteen. They are living in Cork now.
Peadar said that he was born and brought up in Dublin. I do not know where Mánas is from.
‘Where were you born?’ ‘I was born in Portadown (Port an Dúnáin).’
‘Where were you brought up?’ ‘I was brought up in Downpatrick (Dún Phádraig).’
‘Where are you living now?’ ‘I am living in Carrickfergus (Carraig Fhearghasa).’
‘How long are you living there?’ ‘The last five years’.

He woke up on Sunday (Dé Domhnaigh) morning but he did not get up until eleven (a haon déag). He washed himself (é féin) and put on his clothes. He went into the conservatory (sa ghrianán). He made his breakfast then. He drank a cup of milk (bainne) and he ate a cupla of biscuits (cúpla briosca). He left that house at a quarter to twelve (ceathrú go dtí a dó dhéag). It was a bad day (drochlá). It was cold (fuar) and wet (fliuch). He got a taxi into the city centre. The journey (turas) lasted five minutes (cúig bhomaite = cúig nóiméad).
He called into a shop. He lifted a hat, a scarf and a coat. He put them on him (air). He liked them. He bought the coat and the scarf but he did not keep the hat. He got a pair of trousers and a shirt also (fosta). He had not got a chequebook (seicleabhar).
He went into the supermarket. He bought food and a newspaper (nuachtán). He spent a little (beagán) money. He borrowed a CD form the library. It was dry. He walked home. The walk lasted half an hour (leathuair an chloig). His mother (a mháthair) was not happy with the food (leis an bhia = leis an mbia).

This is Áine. She is from Belfast but she is living (ina cónaí) in Cork (i gCorcaigh). She has a house (aici). She bought it a few months ago (cúpla mí ó shin). She likes it. It is small (beag) but nice.
She did not go out on Thursday night (oíche Dhéardaoin). She stayed in by herself (léi féin). She cleaned the house and the garage (garáiste). She lifted her clothes and she washed them. She made her bed. She tidied up the sitting room. She lifted a couple of coats (cúpla cóta) which were lying on the sofa (ar an tolg). She did not brush the floor. She (uirthi) became tired and hungry. She drank a drop of coffee, she ate bread (arán) and took a rest.
She did not stay in the house. She went into the garage (sa gharáiste). She lifted every box (bosca) that was lying on the floor. She came into the house again (arís). She cleaned the table (tábla) in the kitchen but she did not clean the bathroom. She was tired by this time (fán am seo = ag an bpointe seo). She went to bed early and slept her fill (a sáith). She was very happy with herself (léi féin).

Ciarán went to France (chun na Fraince) last year. The weather was cold (fuar) – too cold in fact. He went at the right time. He was not disappointed. There were not too many people there.
He saw a lot of France (den Fhrainc). He does not like fast food. The food was very good in France (sa Fhrainc). He did not do a lot of things early in the morning but he did a lot in the afternoon. The weather was not annoying him. He did not feel weak or (ná) sick.
He did not hire a house for a week but he hired a car. He visited Lissieux one day. He really enjoyed the journey. He saw the house of St Thérèse (teach Naomh Treasa). He did not hear what the guide was saying, he was not interested. He had a book. He read (Léigh sé) the book.
He lost the book at the airport. His case (mála) was stolen and the book was in it (ann).

Síle was glad (ar Shíle) when her friend (a cara) told her (di) that they were going on a holiday. She (uirthi) was worried when she said they were going on a motorbike (ar ghluaisrothar). She is not afraid of motorbikes (roimh ghluaisrothair) but she does not like them. Síle was angry (ar Shíle) when Máire told her that they were leaving (ag imeacht) on a motorbike. She phoned her. ‘Do not be sad, Síle, we shall be (beimid/beidh muid) alright without (gan) the motorbike.’
They phoned up the airport (ar an aerfort). There were a few seats (cúpla suíochán) available (ar fáil) on the aeroplane (ar an eitleán). They left that afternoon (an tráthnóna sin). They were just in time for the flight They showed their passports (a bpasanna) to the airhostess. They went on board the plane. They sat down. They (orthu) were tired but they were not worried.
Máire took a headache. Síle gave her (di) a pill and the airhostess gave her a glass (gloine) of water. She was relieved then. They had a little meal. Síle was thirsty but she was not hungry. Máire was hungry but she was not thirsty. They had to wait for their baggage. They (siad) enjoyed the journey (turas).

She was lying in bed but she was not asleep. She was just after doing work. She fell (thit sí) asleep and had a dream.
An old man (seanduine) was living in a castle (caisleán). He was standing at the door. A dog was sitting at the door also. The old man and the dog were living in the castle. I was a servant girl (cailín aimsire) to the old man. Although I was living in the castle with them (leo) it appeared that I was not able to leave it. The old man was the master (máistir) of the castle (ar an chaisleán = ar an gcaisleán).
I said to him at dinner time (am dinnéir) that I felt I was a prisoner. He stayed quiet. He walked to the door. I walked after him. He turned around (thart). He opened his hand. I saw a large key (eochair mhór). He was about to give me the key ( …an eochair a thabhairt domh) but I woke up. I did not fall asleep again (arís).

‘What is Pól’s phone number?’
‘Naught (a náid = neimhní), seven, eight, three, five, one, nine, six, two, four.’ [0783519624]
‘Does Sandra have a mobile phone?’ ‘Yes.’
Do you have the number?’ ‘Yes.’
Write it down for me (domh), please.
‘Zero (A neimhní), eight, five, three, two, six four, seven, nine, one.’ [0853264791]
That company (ag an chomhlacht sin) has a fax number. Jot it down: Naught, six, seven, nine, five, three, one, two, four, eight, eight. [06795312488]. I often send a fax.
I have a phone at home but I do not have a mobile phone. I have a computer (ríomhaire) and I have e-mail. I go on the web every morning (gach maidin) but I seldom send an e-mail.
Cormac has a mobile phone but he does have a phone at home. He had a contract phone but now he has a ‘pay and go’ card for the mobile phone. He does not send texts often. He sends one a week. (ceann amháin sa tseachtain).

I am Pauline Maguire (Póilín Nig Uidhir). I am from Lisnaskea (Lios an Sceach). There are seven in my family. Myself, my parents, two brothers and two sisters.
My mother is the oldest in the family. She is forty one. My father is four years younger than my mother. He is thirty seven.
Séamas is the oldest of the children, he is nineteen years old. Maighréad is the youngest in the family. She is three years old. Cathal is the middle child, he is twelve years old (dhá bhliain déag). He is a year younger than me. That leaves Fionnuala. She is seven years old. I am six years older than her.
We (againn) have a lot of other relatives. We have eleven uncles (aon uncail déag) and nine (naonúr) aunts. My mother has seven brothers and three sisters. My father has four brothers and six sisters. I have ten cousins. My mother has two nieces and my father has three nephews. My grandmother (máthair mhór = seanmháthair) and my grandfather (athair mór = seanathair) live next door (béal dorais).

I am fifteen years old. My eyes are green and I have black hair. I am tall. I am six feet two inches (dhá orlach). I am not fat. I am thirteen stone (trí chloch déag) weight. I am talkative, kind (cineálta) and sporty (spórtúil).
I have a sister and she is nineteen years old. She does not resemble me in the face. She has brown eyes and brown hair. Her hair is short and curly. She is not lazy but she is not fit (aclaí). She has a sense of humour.
My mother is forty seven years old. She has blue eyes and long red hair. She is very tall, five feet, seven inches. She is nine stone ten pounds. She is very active (an-ghníomhach) and lively. She is also quick-tempered (tobann).
My father is forty six years old. He has short, curly brown hair. He is not going grey. He is not tall or short. He is five foot nine inches. He is not heavy or light (éadrom). He is twelve stone, four pound weight. He has a moustache but he does not have a beard. He is creative (cruthaitheach) and imaginative (samhailteach).

Síle was given a diary (dialann) the other night (oíche). She took it home. She put it in the kitchen. She wrote in a couple of dates (cúpla dáta) in the diary.
The first day (An chéad lá) of January. I will give up sweets. (Éireoidh mé as na milseáin). No-one has a birthday in February, March or in April.
My birthday will be on the twenty-eighth of May. Máire’s birthday will be on the fifteenth on June. There will be a wedding (bainis) on the tenth (ar an deichiú lá) of July. August September and October are free.
Cormac will have a big day on the fifth of November. He will be twenty one (bliain agus fiche). This will have to be celebrated. My son will be six years old on the eighth of December. He hopes he will get a present. He will (gheobhaidh), surely.

Tomás had to get a pen (do Thomás) and write a list of the things they needed (orthu). They did not drive to the supermarket. They went there (ann) in a taxi (i dtacsaí).
They needed (de dhíobháil) vegetables and meat. They did not need chicken or (ná) fish.
They needed (ag teastáil uathu) butter, bread and milk.
The trolley was not full – nor any danger of it. The bill was not very dear. He wrote a cheque.
Bríd took (thug ... léi) a basket (bascaed). She walked to the fruit counter (cuntar na dtorthaí). She got apples, oranges and bananas. She needed (Bhí ... uaithi) sausages, ham, lettuce, cucumber and tomatoes. She looked for washing powder and toothpaste. The basket was nearly full. She did not bring her credit card with her. She paid the bill in cash (le hairgead réidh).

When they had eaten their breakfast and washed the dishes, they went down (síos) to the post office.
He had written a post card to a friend of his (dá chuid) but he had no stamp for it (dó). Ciara had written a letter but she did not have an envelope for it. He (seisean) bought two first class stamps and she (sise) bought three second class stamps.
The postmistress knows them but she does not know them well. Pól did not need a phone card but he needed euros (de dhíth x 2). Ciara did not need (teastáil) anything else (rud ar bith eile = aon rud eile).
Pól had to send a parcel to his mother. He had to pay the postage cost. He forgot to take his wallet (sparán) with him. He lifted (thóg) his bag and pulled out the chequebook. He wrote a cheque.
An old man (seanduine) had a large bill to pay. He gave the money to the postmistress.

Peadar got a job in a hotel (óstán) during the winter (i rith an gheimhridh). He gave directions to people in his working day:
‘Where is the information office, sir?’
‘Go out, turn right, and walk straight ahead. Take the first (an chéad) street on the left. The information office is beside the restaurant, madam (a bhean uasal).
‘Where is the swimming pool (an linn snámha), son (a mhic)?’
‘Go out and turn left. Take the second street on the left, Walk up (suas) a little bit. There is a library (leabharlann) at the corner (ag an ch.). The swimming pool is beside the library.’
‘Where is the bus station (stáisiún na mbusanna), please?’
‘Go out and walk over the road (trasna an bhóthair). Turn left and then turn right. Walk down that street. Turn left again and the bus station is facing you. Here is a map’

We will have (Beidh) mixed weather next week (an tseachtain seo chugainn).
It will be wet on Monday. There will be sunny spells (tréimhsí gréine) and showers in the morning but there will be mist in the afternoon.
It will be very stormy on Tuesday. There will be a strong wind. The storm will last (mairfidh) the whole day. It will be cloudy, wet and cold.
There will be frost and hailstones on Wednesday. It will get worse (éireoidh sé níos measa) in the afternoon. It will snow. The roads will be slippery. A thaw will come (tiocfaidh) on Thursday. It will be cold but it will stay (fanfaidh) dry. The temperature will rise (éireoidh).
A change will come on Friday. It will be dry but cloudy. There will be no (ní bheidh) wind nor (ná) it will not rain (ní chuirfidh).
It will be a nice day on Saturday. The sun will be shining in the morning. It will be hot in the afternoon. It will be a fine day on Sunday as well.
I hope you will have a good weekend (deireadh maith seachtaine agaibh).

Máire got up yesterday morning (ar maidin inné). She drank a cup of coffee before she ate her breakfast. She washed herself before she put on her clothes (a cuid). She filled (líon) her bag before she put it into the car (isteach sa charr).
She went to the shop before she went into the factory (sa mhonarcha). Liam saw her (ise) but she (sise) did not see him (eisean). She was in the office before the director was. ‘Excuse me, I was at a meeting (ar cruinniú) before I came (sular tháinig) here’, he said (arsa seisean).
He asked me to phone the restaurant (scairt a chur ar an bhialann). I sat down before I made the call (an scairt). I had a little cup of coffee before I sat down.
I had to write a report (tuairisc, fem.). I read it before I gave a copy of it to my colleague. He had an appointment with the doctor at half past eleven. He read the report before he left the office. He came back to the office half an hour before we went out (amach) to the restaurant at lunchtime.

They had a big celebration (masc.) recently. They booked a table in a local hotel (in óstán). There was not a big crowd of them. Three (triúr) of them were sitting at the table.
A waiter came to the table and gave the three of them a menu (don triúr acu). They did not take their time (a gcuid). Two of them (beirt acu) ordered a starter, main course and dessert. One of them (duine amháin acu) ordered a starter and a main course and she did not take a dessert.
Pól began with grapefruit (seadóg). After that (ina dhiaidh sin), he had steak, chips and mushrooms (muisriúin).
Brian got a nut (cnónna) salad and then salmon, potatoes and cabbage (cál = cabáiste). He chose cheesecake (císte cáise) for dessert.
Philomena ordered mussels (sligeáin dhubha) for the first course and then lobster (gliomach) and salad for the main course.
The three of them had coffee after the meal (i ndiaidh an bhéile). The meal was excellent and the service was alright (maith go leor). They paid the bill and they left a tip for the waiter.

‘When did you buy the table, father, and where did you buy it?’ my son (mac) asked me (díom). ‘I bought it yesterday in the furniture shop (sa tsiopa troscáin) out at (amuigh ag) the shopping centre.’
‘Who was with you?’ ‘Your mother.’
‘Why did you (pl) need a new table?’ my daughter (iníon) asked me (d’fhiafraigh díom), ‘the old table was nice.’
‘It was, but we wanted a change (athrú … orainn) and that is why (sin (é) an fáth) we bought (cheannaigh muid = cheannaíomar) this new table.’
‘What did you (pl) do with the old table (leis an tseantábla)?’ ‘We left (d’fhág) it in the garage (sa gharáiste).’ ‘Why did you (pl.) do that?’ ‘We do not need it. Oh and (Ó agus) Síle left (d’imigh) with the chairs (leis na cathaoireacha).’ ‘Where did she leave (d’imigh) with them?’ ‘To the clubhouse (clubtheach).’ ‘When did she leave with them?’ ‘A short while (tamall beag) ago. ‘Who left with her, and why did she leave without the table?’ ‘She left with Muiris. She said that they needed the chairs but that they did not need the table.’ ‘Were chairs not bought for the clubhouse (don chlubtheach) a couple of months ago?’ ‘They were but they were lost.’ ‘What happened to them (dóibh)?’ ‘Thieves (gadaithe) stole (ghoid) them.’

Micheál had a cold a few weeks (seachtain) ago. He had a headache but he was not hoarse (ann). He had a terrible time (am, masc.). He (dó) had to stay in bed a couple of days. Áine looked after him at home and he got better. He is as right as rain (seanléim) now, thank God.’
My wife had a toothache. She did not make an appointment with the dentist. She called in (on the off-chance). He gave her an appointment on the spot (in áit na mbonn). The tooth was not taken out. She was given gas (gás) and he filled (líon) it (fem.).
Seán had an accident. He fell in the snow (sa tsneachta). He was badly hurt. He broke his leg and sprained his arm. He was taken to the hospital in an ambulance (otharcharr).
Brian took mumps (leicneach). That lasted a long time. He is greatly improved now.
A lorry knocked Séamas down out on the road (ar an bhealach mhór = ar an mbóthar). He was bleeding (ag cur fola). The doctors and the nurses took him out of danger. A bandage was put on his head and he was given new blood (fuil úr). He had to lie in bed for a couple of months.

A thing was said to Síle the other day which surprised her. A house was sold to a young family (teaghlach óg). A picture (pictiúr) was found in the attic. It was kept in a box (bosca).
The frame (fráma) was seen but the picture was not. One was not sure what was (cad é a bhí) in the picture. The blanket was pulled (tarraingíodh) off the picture (den phictiúr). A laugh (gáire) was heard.
‘I am sure that it was (gurb é) Rembrandt who drew (a tharraing) that picture.’
Sotherby’s were called. The painting was taken into the office. An examination (scrúdú) was made of the (ar) picture. A name (ainm) was discovered at the bottom of the picture (ag bun an phictiúir). R-e-m-b-r-a-n-d-t.
The family were told that much (an méid sin). They (orthu) were asked to come to the office. A seat (suíochán) was given to them (dóibh). The picture was put up for auction (ar ceant) a couple of weeks after that (ina dhiaidh sin). It was sold. The money (an t­airgead) was given to the young family. They were poor before that (roimhe sin) but rich after it.

Áine Ní Ghallchóir gets up early during the week. The clock goes off but she does not get up right away. She lies (luíonn) and listens (éisteann) to the radio (leis an raidió). She gets up, she washes herself and puts on her (a cuid) clothes.
She comes down the stairs and makes her breakfast in the kitchen (sa chistin). She spends another short while (tamall beag eile) listening to the news. She leaves for her work before half past seven. She usually walks into the office. The odd time, if the weather is wet (fliuch), she calls (cuireann sí scairt ar) a taxi (tacsaí).
She brings fruit (torthaí) and a bottle of orange (oráiste) with her for lunchtime. There is a large (mór) shop between her own house and the office. She goes into (téann sí isteach) that shop. She buys an apple (úll), an orange and a newspaper in the shop but she does not buy sweets or (ná) cigarettes (toitíní). She eats her lunch with her friends at lunchtime in the staff room (i seomra na foirne). She likes the crack and the company.

Séamas Ó Gallchóir is a doctor and he is from Derry (Doire) originally but he is living in Belfast. He visits Derry a couple (cúpla) of times a year (sa bhliain).
He spends half the year working in the hospital (san otharlann) and the other half working in the health centre (san ionad sláinte) in Larne (Latharna). He likes the work in the two places (sa dá áit). He begins work at nine and finishes at a quarter to five (ar ceathrú go dtí a cúig = ar ceathrú chun a cúig) usually. When the day is over he goes to the swimming pool (an linn snámha).
He leaves the swimming pool at a quarter past (i ndiaidh = tar éis) six (a sé) and drives home. He comes home at half (leath) past six usually. He watches the televison when he (dó) comes in. He enjoys television because it helps him to relax. He goes to bed (a luí) at half past eleven (a haon déag) almost every night (chóir a bheith achan oíche = beagnach gach oíche).

I get up in the morning at a quarter to eight. I wash myself and get on me but I do not eat my breakfast. I leave the house at ten (deich) past eight. I reach my work twenty five minutes (cúig bhomaite is fiche) after that. I do not start right away. I go (Téim) to the refectory (an bhialann) and I eat my breakfast there (ansin). I finish my breakfast at five (ar cúig) to nine.
When I have finished with breakfast I go into the office (isteach san oifig). If I hear the phone (guthán) ringing (ag bualadh) I answer it (tógaim é). I listen to the customers (leis na custaiméirí) and I speak to them (leo). I try to stop at four o’clock (a chlog) but sometimes I do not finish until half past four.
I leave the office at half past three on Friday (Dé hAoine). I play a game of golf (cluiche gailf) with my friend, Máirtín, if it is not raining (ag cur). If I get the chance I go to the swimming pool on Monday (Dé Luain).

I am Clare O’Neill (Clár Ní Néill). I am a school pupil. I am attending Fortwilliam College (Coláiste Dhún Liam) in Belfast. I am in year eight. I arrive at school every day shortly after (i ndiaidh) nine. I walk (Siúlaim) to school with my friend Mollie.
The school day begins at ten past nine. Here is the time table we have for Friday. English, Maths and Music. We have a break then - and we need it. We have Irish, Physics and Biology (Bitheolaíocht) after the break (i ndiaidh an tsosa). I do not eat my lunch in the school canteen, I eat outside (taobh amuigh = lasmuigh) with my friends (cairde). My mother gives me a lunch every day. I eat sandwiches and fruit (torthaí) and I drink (ólaim) milk.
After lunch, we have PE for a double period (do thréimhse dúbailte) and I then have Science and Spanish. Monday (an Luan, m.) is my favourite day at school because we have Home Economics and Technology that day. My favourite subject is English (m.) and my least favourite is Spanish. Although I like Irish ok (maith go leor) I am not fond of languages, I have no great interest in them. I like my teachers (múinteoirí) and my friends.

I am Pádraig Ó Cearúill. I am a pupil. I am at Gweedore Community School (Pobalscoil Ghaoth Dobhair). I arrive at school every day at a quarter to nine. My mother gives me a lift to school. The school day (an lá scoile) begins at nine o’clock and it finishes (bíonn sé thart) at half past three.
Here is my timetable for Thursday. History, Geography and Biology and then a break. I have English, Irish and French then. I eat my lunch out in the school yard (amuigh i gclós na scoile). I play football (imrím peil) with my friends – if the weather is good. If it is raining (ag cur) I go to the school canteen.
In the afternoon I have Music, Drama, Maths and Chemistry. PE is my favourite subject and Biology is my least favourite.
Although I like Geography I much prefer (is fearr i bhfad liom) History. I take part in the school plays (drámaí na scoile) and I play Gaelic football (peil Ghaelach) for the school (ar son na scoile). I am proud of my school. I have good teachers and kind friends.

I am attending St Colman’s College (Coláiste Cholmáin) in Newry (Iúr Cinn Trá). I was in year eight last year but I am in year nine this year (i mbliana). I will (beidh) be in year ten next year (ar an bhliain seo chugainn).
I walk home from the college with my friend Séamas. He (aigesean) always has plenty of homework to do, but I (agamsa) don’t. Séamas’s father (athair Shéamais) is always giving off to him because he thinks that he doesn’t do enough work (gen. oibre). ‘Do not pay attention (ná dírigh d’aird) so much (a oiread sin) to (ar) Gaelic football (peil Ghaelach), son, (voc. a mhic) but pay attention to the examinations (scrúduithe). How can you be training (ag traenáil) and practising (ag cleachtadh) five nights (cúig oíche) a week and studying just one (ceann amháin go díreach)?’
To give him his dues (Lena cheart a thabhairt dó), Séamas does a little (beagán) reading (léitheoireacht, gen. léitheoireachta) before dinner time (am dinnéir) but when his friends phone him to go down (le dhul síos) to the football pitch (go páirc na peile), he bounds out of the house (bíonn léim an dorais aige).
When he becomes tired he stops playing (den imirt). He runs (ritheann) home and darts (sciordann) into the house. When he has a shower (cithfholcadh) he goes to his bedroom but he only studies for an hour or so (nó mar sin). In spite of that (Ina ainneoin sin) he does not feel under pressure.

Úna Nig Uidhir does not come home from her work until half past five. She takes off her coat and she sits down. She does not clean the kitchen. She puts on the kettle and she drinks a cup of coffee. She does not eat biscuits but she eats bread and butter (im agus arán).
If her coat is (má bhíonn) wet, she dries it. She washes the pots (potaí) and she puts them on the shelf (seilf). She makes her dinner at a quarter past six. She goes out on Wednesday night but she stays in on Thursday.
Her friend Siubhán visits her. They spend the time (an t-am) speaking to each other. They discuss religion (reiligiún) and the news (nuacht) together but they never (in am ar bith) discuss sport or politics. They play cards (cártaí) every now and then. They do not care whether they win or if they lose (cé acu a bhaineann … nó a chailleann …), it is only a game – and they are right.
Siubhán composes (cumann) poetry (filíocht, f.) and Úna tells her what she thinks of the poems (de na dánta). Siubhán is an inspirational woman.

Peadar Ó Conaill is a busy man. He is a researcher (taighdeoir). He enjoys his work and his pastimes.
He is not very fond of sport. He does not play any sport. He goes out walking every morning. He has a music class (rang ceoil) on Tuesday. He likes music. He plays the piano (pianó) and the accordion (bosca ceoil). He plays in a group. They practise together twice (dhá uair) a week. They have a concert (coirm cheoil) once a fortnight, or at least once a month (mí). He is an accomplished musician.
He is involved in a lot of other things as well. He writes an article (alt) for a newspaper once a week. He is interested in the Irish language. He goes to an Irish class on Saturday morning. He does not spend a lazy (falsa) life. That is how he prefers it. He has no time to spare because he is so busy.

This is Pádraigín de Búrca. She is from County Down (see 45). She is a librarian (leabharlannaí). She works long hours (uaireanta fada) during the week but at the weekend she likes to repose.
She has a couple of pastimes. She plays hockey (haca) and camogie (camógaíocht). She trains a couple of nights a week and she plays a game of hockey on Saturday morning and a game of camogie (cluiche camógaíochta) on Sunday afternoon.
Surprisingly enough (iontas na n-iontas), she does not usually read a lot. She has a computer (ríomhaire) and she spends long hours on the internet (ar an idirlíon). She watches television from time to time (ó am go ham). She doesn’t mind about soap operas but she does not like (use dúil ag i) sports programmes.
She loves films. She goes out to the cinema (go dtí an phictiúrlann) once a week or at least once a fortnight. She is lucky because she enjoys her work and her hobbies.

‘What are you doing tonight, Seán?’ ‘I am studying? What are you doing, Conla?’ ‘I am going out. I will be playing music with my friend Nuala. We will (beimid = beidh muid) be practising together.’
‘What is Nuala doing now?’ ‘She is working. She is teaching (ag teagasc) full-time (go lánaimseartha) and painting part-time (go páirtaimseartha).’
‘What will (Cad é a bheas …? = Cad é a bheidh …?) Peadar doing tonight?’ ‘He will be playing snooker (ag imirt snúcair). He is organising a competition (ag eagrú comórtais).’ ‘Peadar likes to be eating, watching television and spending his time playing games.’
‘Are you taking part (ag glacadh páirte) in the play this year (i mbliana)?’ ‘Yes. I have lines (línte) to learn (le foghlaim). Are you (tusa) taking part in the Christmas concert (ceolchoirm na Nollag)?’ ‘No. I am taking a rest. I am preparing (ag déanamh réidh = ag ullmhú) for the exams (do na scrúduithe).’
‘What is Bríd doing?’ ‘She is packing. She will be leaving (ag imeacht) tomorrow (amárach). She will be going (ag dul) to Dublin. She will be staying (ag stopadh) there in the middle of the week (i lár na seachtaine) but she will be coming (ag teacht) home at the weekend. Pól will be waiting (ag fanacht léi). They will be going to the play together.’

Muiris lives in a semi detached house in the middle of Dungannon (Dún Geanainn). The house was only built recently (ach ar na mallaibh).
Downstairs there is a sitting room, a kitchen, a toilet and a conservatory (grianán). Upstairs there are two (dhá) bedrooms and a bathroom. There is no loft in the house.
Outside there is no garden to the front of the house. There is a garage, a shed and a fairly small garden to the rear of the house.
Muiris does not own the house. He has to pay bills every month: rent (cíos), electricity and heat. He does not have to pay insurance or rates.
There is furniture in the sitting room: a couple of sofas, four (ceithre) chairs and a table. There is no fire in the house but there is central heating (ann). There is a white sofa, a small table, two lamps and a bookcase in the conservatory
There is no desk or study in the house. He has a laptop computer (ríomhaire glúine) and that is enough (is leor sin) for him. He is connected to (ceangailte le) the internet and he has broad band (banda leathan) in the house.

They are living (fúthu) in a detached house on the edge of the village (sráidbhaile, m.). It is a big house. It was built twenty years ago (37). Downstairs, there are two sitting rooms, a kitchen and a bathroom. They would like a washroom and a conservatory.
There are four bedrooms and a toilet on the first floor. There is an attic and they use that as a storeroom (seomra stórais). They have a garage but they use that as a study. There is central heating in the garage also. It is clean and comfortable. They park the car out on the street usually.
The house was falling asunder before they bought it. They bought it but then they rented a flat (ghlac siad árasán ar cíos = thóg siad árasán ar cíos) for a year before they moved in (sula ndeachaigh siad isteach ann = sular bhog said isteach ann). They fixed it up (choirigh siad é = dheisigh siad é = chuir siad dóigh air) within (taobh istigh de) a year. There is a nice, big, sunny (grianmhar) garden to the rear of the house. They do a lot of work in the garden. They grow (fásann) their own vegetables. The house cost a lot of money but they say (deir) that it was (gurbh) worth it.

Gearóidín and her father live in a semidetached house between the centre and the edge of the city. They bought the house the year before last (arú anuraidh). They were living in a flat two years ago. They were on the third (tríú) floor. They had a wonderful view and a few other advantages. They were near to (cóngrach do) the city centre and they got to know their neighbours (comharsanaigh) really well.
There were a couple of disadvantages (míbhuntáiste). The traffic (trácht) was noisy and dirty and the rates were very expensive (an-daor).
They read the newspaper one night. They saw an advert (fógra) in (= on) the newspaper about (fá) a housing scheme. They put their name on the list and a house was given (tugadh) to them. As I said already (cheana féin), they moved in a few years ago. They like the area (ceantar). People have a good standard of living in it. It is quiet (ciúin) and peaceful (suaimhneach).

Tomás lives in a village (sráidbhaile) outside (taobh amuigh de) Derry. It is far from the city (cathair) but there is a bus service – although it is not too regular (ró-rialta). The buses are often delayed. There are good facilities in the area but there are some disadvantages as well (freisin = fosta = comh maith).
There is a nursery school and a primary school in the area but there is no secondary school. The children have to go to Derry (dhul go Doire) for secondary education (don mheánscolaíocht).
It is no lie to say that people have a good standard of life in (= ar an …) this village. The houses are not expensive, they are large and they all (uilig) have gardens.
There are sports facilities beside (taobh le) the village. The GAA (Cumann Lúthchleas Gael) have a clubhouse (clubtheach), a playing pitch (páirc imeartha) and a handball alley (cúirt liathróid láimhe) there. There is a rugby club (cumann rugbaí) and a golf course (cúrsa gailf) on the outskirts of the village (ar imeall an tsráidbhaile).
People rear their families here and they are (bíonn) happy with the place.

Máirín lives beside (use taobh le) a large village in County Derry (Contae Dhoire). Her house is situated a mile outside the village. There are about one thousand (míle) people living there. Máirín believes (creideann) that there are advantages and disadvantages in relation to the village.
There are facilities but there are not enough of them (acu). There is primary and a secondary school but there is no nursery school in the village. A nursery school is badly needed. There is a large supermarket, a cinema, a swimming pool, three shops and a post office. Although there was a library, it was shut (druideadh) last year.
They are not too cut off from the city but they feel (mothaíonn = braitheann) cut off from the hospital. Unfortunately there is traffic congestion in the morning and just before dinnertime. That problem will have to be solved. It is abundantly clear (Is léir go…) that a bypass (seachród) is badly needed.
There is plenty (neart) of employment here. A lot of you people stay (fanann) in the area because of that (dá bharr sin). The area needs them. The population is inscreasing (ag méadú) year after year (bliain i ndiaidh bliana).

Tomás likes the Gaeltacht (an Ghaeltacht, 3f). He was in the Gaeltacht with me last year. He goes to the Gaeltacht (chun na Gaeltachta) every August (Lúnasa). He speaks good Irish.
Peadar likes Russia (an Rúis, 2f). He was in Russia a few years ago. He went to Russia with the school. He does not speak Russian (Rúisís).
Úna adores Australia (an Astráil, 2f). She spent a month in Australia the year before last. She will go back to Australia next year (ar an bhliain seo chugainn).
Bertie enjoys Sweden (an tSualainn, 2f). He spent a long time (tamall fada) working in Sweden. I heard that he goes over to Sweden once a year (uair amháin sa bhliain). He speaks Swedish (Sualainnis) perfectly.
Róise raves about Portugal (An Phortaingéil, 2f). She spent two months in Portugal during the summer (i rith an tsamhraidh). She speaks a little bit of Portuguese (Portaingéilis, 2f). She says she will go over to Portugal at Easter.
Lee-Wan likes China (An tSín, 2f). His parents (tuismitheoirí) were brought up in China. Lee-Wan speaks Chinese (Sínis, 2f.) and English. He would like to go China to see the country (tír).
Johan was born in Denmark (sa Danmhairg) but he was brought up in the Netherlands (san Ísiltír).
He goes to Denmark every summer. He speaks Dutch (Ollainnis) and Danish. He likes Denmark and Holland (An Ollainn, 2f.) a lot (go mór).

‘Does Carla like Ireland?’ ‘Yes’. ‘When did she come to Ireland?’ ‘A few years ago.’ ‘Does she speak Irish?’ ‘She speaks a little bit. She learned Irish in Ireland three years (trí bliana) ago.’
Pilib likes England. His aunt (aintín) lives in England. He goes over to England once a year.
Het met (Bhuail sé le) a nice girl in England last summer (an samhradh seo a chuaigh thart = an samhradh seo caite). She (sise) is working over in England and he (seisean) is working here (abhus) in Ireland.
Morag loves Scotland. She was born and brought up in Scotland (8). She is living in Wales now. She goes back to Scotland during the summer. She speaks Gaelic (Gàidhlig). She was brought up in the Isle of Lewis (ar Oileán Leodhais).
Somhairle went over to America during the winter. He was never (riamh) in America before that (roimhe sin). He says that he finds America nice. He visited Canada when he was over in the States (sna Stáit). He spent a weekend in Canada. He would like to go over to Canada for a month next year.

Gearóid would like to tell us about his (fána) holidays the year before last. He spent a long (fada) weekend (west) in the Gaeltacht of Mayo (Gaeltacht Mhaigh Eo). He stayed three nights in a boarding house. He got a bus from Dublin to Ballina (Béal an Átha) and a lift (síob) from Ballina to Ceathrú Thaidhg. He spoke Irish to the woman of the house (le bean an tí) and he enjoyed that.
He spent a fortnight in the Munster Gaeltacht (Gaeltacht na Mumhan) during the summer. He visited County Waterford. He stayed a couple of days in a hotel beside Ring (an Rinn). He drove westwards to County Cork and stayed four days in a boarding house in Muskerry (Múscraí). He hired (use thóg ... ar cíos) a house for a week in Dingle (Daingean Uí Chúis) in County Kerry.
He enjoyed the people of Munster (muintir Chúige Mumhan). They have a different accent (blas difriúil) but he became used to (d’éirigh ... cleachta le) the accent through time (le himeacht ama). He spoke Irish the whole time (an t-am go léir). The weather was nice and he met (bhuail sé le) nice people (daoine deasa).

Football games (cluichí peile) were played (himríodh) in Ulster yesterday. County Down beat (bhuail) County Antrim. There was a draw (comhscór) between County Donegal and County Tyrone. There was a match between County Cavan and County Derry but Cavan (an Cabhán) lost (chaill). County Armagh thrashed (ghread) County Monaghan. County Fermanagh were playing (ag imirt) over in New York (Nua-Eabhrac).
Hurling games (cluichí iománaíochta) were played in Munster on Sunday afternoon. Here are the results of those games (torthaí na gcluichí sin): County Cork beat County Kerry and County Clare thrashed County Limerick. There was a draw between County Tipperary and County Waterford.
Camogie games (cluichí camógaíochta) were played in Connaught. County Galway beat County Sligo, County Mayo thrashed County Roscommon and County Leitrim beat London (Londain).
In Leinster, County Meath beat County Dublin and County Westmeath beat County Longford. There was a couple of draws, one between County Louth and County Kilkenny and another one between County Wicklow and County Carlow. County Kildare thrashed County Laois and County Offaly defeated (bhí an bua ag ... ar ...) County Wexford.
Those are the results from the four provinces. Good night, listeners (a lucht éisteachta).

English (Béarla, m.) is a Germanic (Gearmánach) language. English has been spoken in England for the last one thousand, five hundred years (míle, cúig chéad bliain). The English language first came into Ireland in the 12th century. It declined between the 12th and 17th centuries.
The English language was reintroduced (tugadh isteach ... athuair) into Ireland in the 16th and 17th centuries. People came from England and Scotland and they settled (lonnaigh) in Ireland. The English government (Rialtas Shasana) opposed (chuir in éadan) the Irish language.
The Irish language survived among (i measc na ndaoine bochta) the poor people but it declined greatly in the 19th century. At least fifty percent (ag caoga faoin chéad ar a laghad) of the population of Ireland spoke Irish in 1800 – as many as five million Irish speakers.
From the eighteen century onwards (Ón ochtú céad déag ar aghaidh), English was used (baineadh úsáid as) in the courts (sna cúirteanna), in political life (i saol na polaitíochta) and as the language of administration (teanga an riaracháin). It was also used in the National Schools during the 19th century. The Great Famine (an Gorta Mór) happened in 1847. One million people died and another one and a half million emigrated (d’imigh ... ar an imirce). By the end of the 19th century only fourteen percent of the population (daonra) could speak Irish. When the Gaelic League was formed in 1893 (míle ocht gcéad nócha a trí) the Irish language was at a low ebb (in ísle brí).

In today’s world, laziness (an fhalsacht) is affecting people’s health. We do not do enough exercise and we eat too much. Let this be ended now! We become too lazy (rófhalsa) because we do not walk enough. We sit down at night and we spend the whole night watching television.
Crisps (brioscáin phréataí) and chocolate (seacláid) are eaten and sweet drinks (deochanna milse) are drunk. This is not wholesome food nor is it a healthy way of life. Let something (rud inteacht = rud éigin) be done about it (fá dtaobh dó) right away. Walking every day will improve (cuirfidh feabhas) our life style. We will feel (mothóidh muid = braithfimid) better (níos fearr) and healthier (níos folláine).
Why do we not go the leisure centre (an tsólann) or to the swimming poll (an linn snámha) once a week? Why do we not go out cycling (ag rothaíocht) more often (níos minice)? Little things such as these will help (cuideoidh = cabhróidh) us (linn). Let us undertake (tugaimis) undertake them now. If changes like these are made, it will improve our health. They will have a good influence on us.

Sometimes (Corruair) things are bought which we do not need. Money is given to us and one runs (ritear) to the shops with it. The money is spent but one never (choíche) thinks (smaoinítear) why these things are bought. Half of them (an leathchuid acu) are not used (baintear ... úsaid as). They are brought home and they are left (fágtar) in the boxes.
One is attempting to sell us all sorts of things in the shops. No attention is being paid to the cost (costas). Money is not saved (ní shábháiltear) in today’s world. The tills (na scipéid) are filled and the pockets (na pócaí) are emptied.
Children (páistí = leanaí) are put under immense pressure to buy toys. Toys are sold to them which only last (maireann) a short while (tamall gear = seal beag gairid). The toys are clean forgot about after a week (i ndiaidh seachtaine). Not too much thought is given to the child who has no money. It is assumed (Glactar leis) that everyone has plenty of money and one goes overboard with presents (bronntanais). Why is this ceaseless (gan stad) spending not questioned? Why is it being pursued? Why are we not given a break?

Nóta Why = Cad chuige = Cén fáth = Cad ina thaobh?

Síle will go to bed early on Monday night. She will have to get up early on Tuesday morning. The alarm clock (an clog rabhaidh) will ring but she will not hear it. Her mother will come into the bedroom and she will say (déarfaidh sí) to Bríd to get up (éirí).
Bríd will hear her mother talking to her and she will get up. She will wash herself and she will put on her clothes. She will eat an egg (uibh U, ubh Std Ir.) and toast (tósta) and she will drink orange juice (sú oráiste). It is likely that (is dócha go) she will drink a cup of coffee as well.
She will leave the house at a quarter to seven. She will not take a lunch with her. She will get her lunch in a hotel (in óstán) in Derry. A taxi will come for her (fána coinne). She will walk out of the house when the taxi comes. The taxi will go to the train station (go stáisiún na traenach). The train will leave Belfast at half past seven. The journey will last two hours or so. She will buy a newspaper and she will read it on the way to Derry.
She will attend (freastalóidh sí ar) a meeting in the City Hotel (Óstán na Cathrach) on the Strand Road (Bóthar na Trá). She will reach the hotel at ten o’clock. The meeting will begin at half past ten and it will last until one o’clock. After lunchtime (I ndiaidh am lóin) she will have another appointment. This will only last an hour. She will return to Belfast at a quarter to five.

Conall will set a couple of hours aside on Sunday afternoon. He will glance at his diary to see what lies ahead of him (roimhe) next week.
He will have an appointment with the accountant (leis an chuntasóir) on Monday morning. He will prepare for that on Sunday night. He will have an ordinary working day on Tuesday. He will have nothing going on Wednesday.
There will be a committee meeting (cruinniú coiste) on Thursday but he will not have to attend that. He will have to sit down on Thursday morning and write a report on the Open Day (Lá Oscailte). He has an appointment with the doctor at half past nine on Friday morning but he will go into the office after that.
His son will have a football match on Saturday afternoon. He will have to give him a lift to the game. He will stay (fanfaidh sé) and he will watch (amharcfaidh sé ar = breathnóidh sé ar) the game. All the family (an teaghlach uilig) will go out to the pictures (go dtí an phictúrlann) on Saturday night. His wife and he have an invite to a concert (coirm cheoil) on Sunday afternoon. He will come home after that and he will have a rest on Sunday night.

Síle arived at the bus station (stáisiún na mbusanna) but there was a queue before her (roimpi). An old man (seanduine or seanfhear) asked for a single ticket from Dublin to Galway (Gaillimh). ‘Seventeen euros (seacht n-euro déag), please. The bus will be leaving at half past nine and it will arrive in Galway at a quarter past one. Platform three.’
A young woman asked for a return ticket to Monaghan (Muineachán). ‘Forty (daichead) euro, please. The bus will leave from platform seven at ten to eleven. The journey will last an hour and a half (uair go leith). There is a toilet (leithreas) on the bus.
‘Give me a single ticket to Derry, please.’ ‘Here you are. Sixty euro, please.’ ‘Costly enough.’ ‘That’s the price (luach or praghas), sir (a dhuine uasail). You will leave Dublin at a quarter to ten. You will come into to Belfast at twelve o’clock. You will change train in Belfast but you will not change station. The train to Derry will leave Belfast at twenty past twelve and you will be in Derry at twenty-five past two.’

Cathal will have holidays this year. He will go over to Germany (an Ghearmáin) (see 42) for a month. His mother and his father will come with him. They will leave in the middle of May (Mí na Bealtaine) and they will not return home until the middle of June (Mí Mheithimh).
They will drive to Dublin and they will get an aeroplane to Germany. Cathal’s mother (máthair Chathail) was in Germany a couple of years ago but Cathal’s father was never in that country.
They do not mind (Ní miste leo) whether the weather is (cé acu a bhíonn) warm or cold. The German people (bunadh na Gearmáine) are talkative (cainteach) and lively (bríomhar). A lot of people say to them that the food is tasty but expensive. There are nice museums (iarsmalanna) in the cities (sna cathracha) and they cannot wait until May.
They will stay in a hotel for a week in Bonn. They will rent a flat (árasán) for a fortnight in Berlin. They will leave (fágfaidh siad) the flat in the morning and they will not return until nightfall (titim na hoíche). They will spend the day walking around (ag siúl thart ar) that beautiful city.
They will visit art galleries and museums but they will not visit pubs (tithe tábhairne). The parents (na tuismitheoirí) will not spend a lot of money owing to the fact (ar an ábhar go) Cathal will pay for (íocfaidh C. as) everything.

Bríd will not be going overseas this summer. She will have a fortnight free. She lives in Glasgow (Glaschú). She will go to England (Sasain = Sasana). She will only spend a weekend in Liverpool (Learpholl). After that she will stay in a hotel in London (Londain) for a week. She will get a bus from Liverpool to London and she will get a train from London back to Glasgow. She will leave at the end of September (Mí Mheán Fómhair) and come back to Scotland (Albain) at the start of October (Mí Dheireadh Fómhair).
She will only pack one case (cás amháin) but she will bring (with her) her money, her credit card and her chequebook (seicleabhar). She will visit her brother in Liverpool. They will go to a formal (dinnéar gléasta) together. She will go out to a restaurant (go bialann) almost every night in London. She will go to the theatre (go dtí an amharclann) the odd night as well.
She will walk through the streets of London (fríd shráideanna Londain) during the day and she will see as much as she can. It is certain (Is cinnte …) that she will enjoy the food and the social events, but will she enjoy the weather? She will not send post cards (cártaí poist) to her parents (a tuismitheoirí) but she will phone them (cuirfidh sé scairt/glaoch orthu) every night. She will send an e-mail (ríomhphost) to her friend almost every day.

Our school (scoil s’againne) will have a lot of work done to it next year (ar an bhliain seo chugainn). The old school (an tseanscoil) will be knocked down (leagfar) and a new school (scoil úr) will be built in its place. The pupils (na daltaí) will be asked to go to another school between September and January (Mí Eanáir).
A timetable (clár ama) will be arranged for the building work (obair thógála). The timetable will be stuck to (cloífear le) and it is hoped (táthar ag súil) that the work will be finished (go gcríochnófar) in time. That remains to be seen, of course (ar ndóigh).
New furniture will not be bought for the classrooms (na seomraí ranga) but new equipment (trealamh) will be bought for the sports hall (halla spóirt). It is likely (Is dócha) that the old computers (na seanríomhairí) will be sold. An advert will be placed in the school magazine (ar iris na scoile) and up to three thousand pounds will be earned from them.
The railings (ráillí) will not be taken down. They will be cleaned. The rust (an mheirg) will be taken off them (díobh) and they will be painted. Funding (maoiniú) will be expected from the government (rialtas). A grant (deontas) will be given (tabharfar) to the school but all the money (an t-airgead uilig) will not be got (ní bhfaighfear) from them (uathu). The rest of the money will be got from the parents (tuismitheoirí).

Cailtín had to drive to Dublin last week (an tseachtain seo a chuaigh thart = an tseachtain seo caite). The manager asked her to stay there. She stayed a few nights in a hotel. She had to speak to a few customers (custaiméir) on Tuesday and she had to meet a voluntary group (grúpa deontach) on Wednesday.
Pádraig would like to go to Paris (Páras) but he would not like to go in the wet weather. He would prefer to drive around than walk. He would prefer not to drive early in the morning or at tea-time (am tae). He would prefer to stay for a month (ar feadh míosa) but he has to return in a week’s time (i gceann seachtaine).
He has a lot of things (cuid mhór rudaí = a lán) to do in that city. He will have to get up early every day. He will have to tell his employer (inse dá fhostaitheoir) everything about the trip (fán turas) when he comes back.

Máire had to clean her car on Sunday (Dé Domhanaigh) morning. She had been trying to get free time (am saor) for ages (le fada). She wished to buy a new car but Brian asked her to keep (coinneáil) the old one (an seancheann).
There were heavy boxes (bocsaí troma) in the car. She asked Brian to lift them out for her. He had to put the boxes in the garage (sa gharáiste).
Pól advised Síle to make (déanamh réidh or ullmhú) the lunch (lón). There was no food (bia ar bith = aon bhia) in the house. Pól had to walk to the shop to buy milk (bainne), bread (arán), eggs (uibheacha) and bacon (muicfheoil). He had to get a taxi (tacsaí) home (abhaile).
When Síle had made the lunch she asked them to come in (theacht isteach). Máire had to take her shoes (a cuid bróg) off (a bhaint di). Brian was trying to read (léamh) the paper (an páipéar) but he had to fill (líonadh) the kettle (citeal) and cut (gearradh) the bread (an t-arán). When they had eaten the lunch (ite) and drunk (ólta) the tea they had to leave.

Peadar said that he was going on a journey (ar thuras) with the football club (cumann peile) for a month (ar feadh míosa). He had to pack his bags (a chuid málaí). He got the loan of a small brown case from his father but his mother had to buy him a large black trolley and a sports bag (mála spóirt).
He took a couple of pairs football boots (buataisí peile) – a black pair and a white pair. He also took two track suits (culaith spóirt), a navy blue (dúghorm) cap (bearád) and a purple scarf.
Red towels and blue towels (tuáillí) were given to him and he put them in the trolley.
A large blue bus came to the football club. The players (na himreoirí) wore green suits (cultacha), white shirts (léinte), blue ties (carbhataí) and brown (bróga) shoes.

When she needs a new car she looks at a lot (morán = a lán) of them. She looks at the dearest car and at the cheapest one (ceann). She tries to choose (roghnú) the best car – the fastest one.
If the cheap car is as good and as the fast as the dear car, she will have a difficulty (deacracht = fadhb), but if the dear car is much (i bhfad) better than the cheap one, she will buy the best one.
Pól is funny (greannmhar) but Séamas is (is é Séamas) the funniest (is greannmhaire) boy in the class. Máire is talkative (cainteach) but Bríd is the most talkative (is caintí) girl (girseach f.) in the class. Tomás and Caitríona are (Is iad Tomás agus Caitríona) the most interesting (is suimiúla) teachers in the school. Although they are interesting (suimiúil), the pupils do not always listen to them. The best pupils listen but the worst pupils don’t. They often ask (Lit. ‘It is often they ask …’) questions (a chuireann siad ceisteanna) during the lessons (ceachtanna). The questions are (bíonn) easy (furast) and difficult (deacair = doiligh). They ask the most clever (is cliste) pupils the most difficult (is deacra) questions and they ask the weakest (is laige) pupils the easiest (is fusa) questions.
The strongest people (na daoine is láidre) should (ba cheart do …) help the weakest people and the richest (is saibhre) people should (use ba chóir) help the poorest (is boichte) people. It is no bad thing (Ní holc an rud é) to be (a bheith) strong and rich but it is bad not to think about (gan smaoineamh ar) the people who are poor and weak.

I have a great (mór) respect for teachers owing to the fact that (de bhrí go) they do excellent work (obair den chéad scoith) in the schools. They know (bíonn) the students and when teachers do good work the students remember them because of that (mar gheall air sin). Good teachers inspire (spreagann) the pupils and they have great faith (dóchas) in them. That said (sin ráite), when students have a lazy (falsa = leisciúil) tutor (oide), they do not have confidence in him. They think little (Is beag …) of him.
Although (bíodh go …= cé go …) I respect most journalists (an chuid is mó de na hiriseoirí) there are certain (áirithe) journalists for whom I have absolutely no respect (meas dá laghad). I do not respect them because (ar an ábhar go) they try to sell papers (páipéir a dhíol) and they do not try to tell the truth (an fhírinne a inse = a insint).
I have a friend Seán. He has no pity (trua ar bith = aon trua) for the people who smoke too much. I myself know people who smoke too much and I must say (caithfidh mé a rá) that I pity them. When people give up cigarettes (nuair a éiríonn daoine as na toitíní), they feel (bíonn) proud of themselves because (de thairbhe go) they have confidence in themselves again.

Experts think that (Dar le saineolaithe go ...) the environment will be in danger unless something is done (mura ndéantar rud éigin/inteacht) to save our natural resources (ár n-acmhainní nádúrtha a shábháil). It is said (deirtear) that we will have to do a total rethink (athsmaoineamh iomlán) on the way (ar an dóigh) we waste (cuireann ... amú) these precious (luachmar, pl. luachmhara) resources.
It is evident that (is léir go ...) the trees will have to be saved. Too many trees (gen. pl. crann) are cut (gearrtar) every year. Woods (coillte) and forests (foraoiseanna) are being cut (á ngearradh) day after day but young trees are not being planted (á gcur) in place of them (ina n-áit). Let us not cut all the time but let us plant (cuirimis) also!
An emphasis (béim) will have to be put on ecology (ar an éiceolaíocht) when we are building (agus muid ag tógáil) new houses, cities, towns and villages. We could use (the) wind and the sun’s heat to provide (soláthar) electricity (leictreachas) and central heating (teas lárnach). Oil (ola) and gas (gás) will not last (ní mhairfidh) much longer (i bhfad eile). Let us be (bímis) careful (cúramach) with nuclear power, or a lot of the world will be put in danger.
Let us respect (bíodh meas againn ar) the environment before it is too late. Let us think about (smaoinímis ar) the generations who have (yet) to come and let us not think about ourselves the whole time. Let us waken up (dúisimis = músclaímis) and let us do something worthwhile (fiúntach). Let us not wait (na fanaimis) too long!

I am Pól and I have friends (cairde), Ciarán and Dónall. They (siadsan) are working in a hotel (óstán) but I (mise) work in a garage. They like their work but they do not like the wages (an tuarastal). I myself do not like my work. I would really love (breá) another job (post).
We were at school (ar scoil) together (le chéile) when we were (nuair a bhí) young. I remember (is cuimhin liom ...) the school but I do not remember the teachers (múinteoirí). Pól says that he remembers (… gur cuimhin leisean …) the teachers but that he does not remember (… nach cuimhin leis …) the other pupils (daltaí).
I prefer sport (spórt) to (ná) music (ceol) but Dónall says that he (leisean) prefers music to sport. Which do you prefer (Cé acu is fearr leatsa …) music or sport?
Ciarán would prefer to buy a house in Cork (Corcaigh) but Dónall said that he himself would prefer to buy a flat in Paris (Páras). Which would you prefer yourself (Cé acu ab fhearr leat féin) a house or a flat?
Peadar knows me a long time. Peadar’s father (athair Pheadair) was a mechanic and my father (m’athairse) was a plumber (pluiméir). Peadar’s father said that he remembered (gur chuimhin leis …) when my father was in the school choir (cór na scoile) years ago but my father said that he did not remember that.

If Síle won (mbainfeadh or mbuafadh) three million euro (euro) she would not do (ní dheánfadh sí) do a lot (mórán). She would tell (d’inseodh) everyone in the family (sa teaghlach) that she had won the money. She said that she would ask (go n-iarrfadh) us not to say to the neighbours (comharsanaigh).
She would take her time and she would think about how she would spend the money. It is likely that (Is dócha go …) she would give money to everyone in the family but that she would not give them (dóibh) too much (barraíocht or an iomarca).
She would not buy a new house but is certain that she would get (go bhfaigheadh) a new car. She would get a jeep (jíp) as well. She does not know whether she would stay in her job or whether she would resign. She would not go round the world. She would go to the seaside (cois farraige) and she would not come back for a month (go cionn míosa).
She would arrange (shocródh) a big night in the house to celebrate (le ceiliúradh a dhéanamh). Her relations and her friends would be there. Everyone would eat (d’íosfadh) and drink (d’ólfadh) their fill (sáith or dothain).

My daughter told me the other night (an oíche fá dheireadh) the career she would wish for. She would like to be (Ba mhaith léi a bheith ina ..) doctor if she had the chance (seans m.). She would do a degree in Medicine (sa Leigheas) but she would not stay in Ireland.
She said that she would go out to the Third World and that she would spend three years (trí bliana) working there. She would mount (chuirfeadh … ar bun) a campaign (feachtas) to gather (cruinniú or bailiú) money. She would use this money to build a village (sráidbhaile) in an African country (i dtír de chuid na hAfraice).
She would ask builders (tógálaithe), teachers (múinteoirí) and nurses (banaltraí) to come out (theacht amach) with her. They would build (thógfadh siad or thófaidís) houses, a shop, a school and a hospital. She said that more (tuilleadh) people would come to them when they would read (léifeadh siad or léifidís) about their work.
She would discuss (phléifeadh) the scheme with the locals (le muintir na háite) and she would listen to them. She would respect them (use aice, orthu) and they would respect her (use stressed forms acusan, uirthise).

If this house were sold as it is now, eighty (ochtó) thousand pounds would be got for it. If work were done to it (air), one hundred (céad) thousand pounds would be offered (d’ofrálfaí) for it (air). It is certain that a big profit would be made on it if it were repaired (dá gcóireofaí or dá ndeiseofaí). If ninety (nócha) thousand pounds were not got (mura bhfaighfí) for it, it would be kept. It would not be sold at all (ar chor ar bith or in aon chor).
If a bicycle were discovered (dá dtiocfaí ar …) lying on the road, it would be brought home. A notice (fógra) would be written (scríobhfaí) and it would be put up (in airde) on the garden wall (ar bhalla an ghairdín). “THE LOST BIKE IS AVAILABLE (ar fáil) HERE”. One could (d’fhéadfaí) go to the door and ask for the bike (an rothar a iarraidh) – if you owned it (dá mba leatsa é).
You would be asked (D’fhiafrófaí díot or chuirfí ceist ort) what colour it was and what was written on the side of the bicycle (ar thaobh an rothair). If correct answers (freagraí cearta) were given to (dá tabharfaí … ar) those questions (ceisteanna), the bicycle would be given to that person – if not, it would be kept.

When I used to be late for the Irish class, I used to be afraid (bhíodh eagla orm) but the teacher used to come out when he used to see (nuair a tchíodh Ulster, or nuair a d’fheiceadh Standard) me standing at the door and he used to put me at my ease (ar mo shuaimhneas).
I used to go into the class then and I used to sit down. If I did not used to have (mura mbíodh … agam) a pen, my friend Máire used to give me the lend of one (thugadh sé/bheireadh sí … ar iasacht do …). The teacher used to write (scríobhadh) sentences (abairtí) on the board (clár) and I used to write them into my book.
He himself used to say the words (focail) first of all (i dtús báire) and he used to ask us (d’iarradh sé orainne) to say them after him. We used to say (deirimis) them three times (trí huaire) before we used to write them (sula scríobhaimis) down. I used to jot them down (bhreacainn síos) in my note book (leabhar nótaí).
When I used to come home I used to look at my notebook and I used to learn the sentences off by heart (de ghlanmheabhair). I used to sit down and I used not to get up until I learned them. I used to leave the notes down then and I used to phone my friend. I used to tell him (dó) about the funny things that used to happen (a tharlaíodh or a thiteadh amach) during the class (i rith + gen.).

When Bríd used to come home from work, she used to park (pháirceáladh) the car in the garage and she used to come into the house. She used not to drink tea or coffee but she used to drink water and eat fruit (torthaí). She used not to listen to the radio but she used to watch television for a while (ar feadh tamaill = ar feadh scathaimh).
She used to off to the supermarket (go dtí an t-ollmhargadh) every Thursday night but she used not to spend too much time (barraíocht ama or an iomarca ama) there. When she used to arrive at the supermarket, she used to grab hold (bheireadh sí greim ar) of a trolley (tralaí). She used to walk (shiúladh) around the shelves (thart ar na seilfeanna) and she used to chose (thogadh or phiocadh) the things she used to need for the rest of (don chuid eile den) the week.
She used to buy a magazine (iris fem.) from time to time. When she used to return (philleadh Ulster, d’fhilleadh Standard) home, she used to put the food in the fridge (cuisneoir). She used to leave (d’fhágadh) the magazine on the table and make (ghníodh sí réidh Ulster, dhéanadh sí réidh) a drop (bolgam) of tea. She used to sit down and she used to read the magazine from start to finish.

68 (Ba ghnách le …)
Máire used to play netball (cispheil) when she was at school. She used not play tennis very often (rómhinic). Although she used not to play tennis regularly, her teacher used to always ask her to play tennis for the school team (d’fhoireann na scoile).
Conall used to be a French teacher (múinteoir Fraincise). He used to give homework (obair bhaile) to the pupils every (achan = gach aon) night during the week (i rith na seachtaine = i gcaitheamh na seachtaine = le linn na seachtaine). He said that he used not to give them homework at the weekend. They used to get a little break (sos).
Didn’t Michéal used to spend (caitheamh) his holidays in Spain? I don’t think (ní shílim) that he did. Pól said that he used to spend his holidays in the Gaeltacht – in the Donegal Gaeltacht (Gaeltacht Thír Chonaill) He used to go at the start of July (ag tús Mhí Iúil) and he used not to come home until the end of August (deireadh Mhí Lúnasa).

Food used to sold (dhíoltaí) at fairs (ar aontaí) long ago. People used to be heard (chluintí or chloistí) speaking to each other. Things used to be bought (cheannaítí) at those fairs and they used to be brought (thugtaí Std, bheirtí U) home.
A lot of work used to be done (dhéantaí Standard, ghníthí Ulster) in the fields (sna páirceanna). A crop (barr) used to be sown (chuirtí) in spring and it used to be reaped in the autumn. Cattle (eallach) and sheep (caoirigh) used to be left out (amuigh) in the fields also.
Another custom used to be practised, namely (mar atá,) night visiting (airneál). One used to go (théití) on a visit (ar cuairt) to a house in the neighbourhood (sa chomharsanacht). One used to sit (shuití) down and tea used to be drunk (d’óltaí). Stories (scéalta) used to be told (d’instí) but they used not to be believed. Songs (amhráin) used to be sung (deirtí or chantaí) and they used to listened to (d’éistí leo).
The house used not to be left (ní fhágtaí) until midnight.These nights used to ge greatly enjoyed (bhaintí sult mór as …). They used to be looked forward to (bhítí ag súil leo) and the children used to be let (ligtí do) listen to the stories and the songs. They used to be put to bed at midnight.

Doherty = Ó Dochartaigh, Uí/Ní Dhochartaigh
Sweeney = Mac Suibhne, Mhic/Nic Shuibhne

Seán was walking past Doherty’s house the other night. It seemd to him (choncthas dó) that everyone in the household was working hard (go crua). Mrs Brigid (Bríd) Doherty was painting the windows. (Miss) Ciara Doherty was washing the doors and wiping (cuimilt) them.
Mr Doherty was trying to clear (réiteach) the path (cosán m.). He was scraping (scríobadh) with a shovel (sluasaid f.) but the shovel was hurting him.
James Doherty was lifting the chairs (cathaoireacha) out of the kitchen (amach as an chsitin) and putting them out (amuigh) on the grass.
Sean walked (shiúil) over the road (an bealach mór or an bóthar, gen. an bhealaigh mhóir or an bhóthair) in the direction of Sweeny’s house. Mr Sweeney was painting the walls and Mrs Mary Sweeney was trying to clean the doors. (Miss) Nuala Sweeney was washing the plates (plátaí) and the cups (npl. cupáin, gpl. cupán) and her brother, Pól Sweeney, was drying them and putting them in the cupboard (cófra).